Küçült Yazı Tipi Büyüt

Content of Course for Biology MSc Program

  • BIY 701 Principles of Animal Systematics (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Description anf history of systematic; the importance of systematic; taxonomical categories; species concept and infa-specific categories; systematic collections; sampling and preparing procedures; taxonomical characters; description and its procedure; binominal nomenclature; variatio and variation types; taxonomical publications; International zoologie congress; the use of international code of zoological nomenclature

  •  BIY 702 Vertebrate Evolution (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Jeological times, the importance of fosil records; emergence periods of animals; the idea on vertebrate origins; discussion on the evolution theory of Darwin relating vertebrate evolution; evolutinary importance of homolgy and anology; from water to land for vertebrates; evolutionary history of fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds; mammal like reptiles and mammalian characters; the evolutions of mammals.

  • BIY 703 Animal Tracs (2 2 3) 6 ECTS

What is a track; Discrimination of animal tracs; measurements and evaluation of track groups; species identification from tracks; collecting and evaluating pellets; collecting techniques for tracks; preservation of animal tracks

  • BIY 704 Biology and Ecology of Mammals (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Movement types of mammals; orientation; feding; energetics; endothermy; reproduction; postnatal development; care of youngs; seasonal, morphological and physiological changes; extere living environmets; population statistics; the role and importance of mammals in ecosystems

  • BIY 705 Movement Mechanisms of Vertebrates (2 0 2) 6 ETCS

Movement in fishes, active and passive swimming; vertical and horizontal movements; speed; movement pecularities of amphibians; movement pecularities of reptiles and movement organs; flight and glide in birds; landing; pseed in birds; movement in mammals; walking; running; jumping; flight; speed; important functional structures in vetrebrates for movement.

  • BIY 706 Rodents of Turkey (2 2 3) 6 ETCS

Rodent species of Turkey; giagnostic characters of Turkish rodents; taxonomical problems; distribution of rodets species; ecological importance

  • BIY 707 Collecting, Preparation and Protection of Vertebrates (2 2 3) 6 ETCS

Collecting, preparing and preserving techniques of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds ans mammals; Preparation of fixation solutions for fish, amphibi, reptile, bird and mammal samples; Taxidermi techniques for bird and mammal samples; labeling of vertebrate samples; preserving methods of the samples in museums

  • BIY 709 Advanced Insect Biochemistry I (2 2 3) 6 ECTS

Organogenesis, Peritrophic membrane, Digestive enzymes, Specific nutrients, Measures of food intake and utilization, Molting and formation of new cuticle, The Prothoracic glands, The Corpora allata and Juvenil hormon, Pathways of Metabolism, The Central Nervous System, The Neuropil, Conduction of the action potential.

  • BIY 710 Advanced Insect Biochemistry II (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Muscles, Basic muscle structure, Chemoreceptors, Hemocytes, Hemoglobin in insects, Structure of the tracheal system, Respitory pigments, Water balance, Malpighian tubules, Pheromones, Female reproductive system, The Chorion.

  • BIY 711 The Biology of the Liverworts (2 2 3) 6 ECTS

The evident differences between Mosses and Hornworts-Liverworts; The origin of Liverworts and Hornwort, general and distinguishing features among them, general acceptanced systematic order of Liverworts and Hornwort; The mosslike Hepatics and Scale-Mosses (Calobryales, Jungermanniales); Multiform Thallose Hepatics (Metzgeriales); The bottle Hepatics (Sphaerocarpales); The Giant Thallose Hepatics (Monocleales); The Chambered Hepatics (Marchantiales); Evolutionary Trends and Interrelationship among the Hepatics; The Hornworts (Anthocerotopsida).

  • BIY 712 The Biology of Mosses (2 2 3) 6 ECTS

The distinctive features and life-cycle of Mosses; Criteria for evolutionary interpretation and fossil records; The Lantern Mosses (Andreaeidae); The Peat Mosses (Sphagnidae); The Four-Toothed Mosses (Tetrapidae); The Hair-Cap Mosses (Polytrichidae); The Bug Mosses (Buxbaumiidae); Jointed-Toothed Mosses (Bryidae); The Large-Spored Mosses (Archidiidae).

  • BIY 713 Biology of the Seedless Plants (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Plant Classification, Problems in Classification, System of Plant Classification, Bryophytes (Bryophyta); land plants lacking vascular tissue:  The Liverworts (Marchantiopsida), Hornworts (Anthocerotopsida), and Mosses (Bryopsida), Tracheophytes (Tracheophyta); land plants having vascular tissue: The Ferns (Pteridophytina), Club Mosses (Lycophytina), and Horsetails (Euphyllophytina).

  • BIY 714 Environmental Biology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Environment and Human; Ecosystems; Resultants of Ecosystems; Food Chains In the Nature; Biogeochemical Cycles; Soil and Erosion; Agriculture and Grazing on Arids Lands; Desertification: Causes and Processes; Water Pollution; Air Pollution and Forest; Deforestation: Causes and Processes; Acid Rains; Atmospheric Ozone and the Biological Impact of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation; Biodiversity; Processes of Loss in Biodiversity; Nature and Protection; Importance of Flora and Vegetation in Protection of Ecosystems; Natural Parks and Protected Areas; Precautions; Damaging Factors of Ecosystems and International Activities for their Protection.

  • BIY 715 Techniques for Collecting and Preserving of Storing Botanical Specimens (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Gathering the Specimens; Collecting equipments; Collecting techniques; Protection in the field; Recording the Data; Preservation of Specimens; Pressing, Drying, Processing of Specimens: Identification, Identification equipment, Identification technique; Label Preparation; Mounting: Mounting equipment, Mounting techniques; Accessioning (Cataloguing), Storage of Specimens; Organization, Handling, Maintenance.

  • BIY 716 Biotechnology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Overview of biotechnology, Basic fundamentals of biotechnology, Production of biological metabolits, Applications of biotechnology in human life and environment.

  • BIY 717 Biochemistry of Health (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Genaral structure and function of biomolecules, Metabolism deficiency, Control and regulation of intermediate metabolic processes, Biochemistry of defence mechanism, Importance of nutritional biomolecules for living organisms.

  • BIY 718 Tissue and System Physiology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Cellular physiology, Nervous and muscle physiology, Special sensory systems, Endocrinology, Reproduction, Respiration of animals and human, Blood, Transport of biomolecules in organisms, Regulation of metabolic processes.

  • BIY 719 Molecular Metabolism (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Building blocks and metabolic intermediate products of living organisms, and their functions. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, hormons, vitamins and amino acids, RNA synthesis and processing, Protein targeting, signal sequences, signal recognition particle, Receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  • BIY 720 Palynology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Structure and morphology of pollen and spores, structure and classification of Gymnosperme pollen, structure and classification Angiospermae pollen. 

  • BIY 721 Bioclimatology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Climate and bioclimate, world climates, methods of bioclimate and Turkey climates.

  • BIY 722 Comparative Plant Anatomy (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Epidermis and epidermal structures having diagnostic feature in plants, comparative anatomical properties of xylem (wood), kinds of stele and evolution of stelar anatomy, nodal anatomy and evolution, comprison of stem histology, comparative anatomical properties of leaf, comparative anatomy of root, comparative anatomy of flower, histology of fruit and seed.

  • BIY 723 Advanced Biometry (2 2 3) 6 ECTS

Advanced statistical methods in Biology, data acquisition in biology, applicable statistical analysis of biological data, evaluation of statistical results, descriptions, definitions, statistical distributions, hypothesis testing, and variance analysis

  • BIY 724 Population Genetics (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Mendelian genetics, statistical outcomes of Mendelian inheritance, Hardy-Weinberg Principles, Linkage Disequilibrium, Genetic Drift, Random mating, mutations, natural selection, migration, Neutral Allele Theory, Molecular Population Genetics, Ecological Genetics, and computer applications of population genetics.

  • BIY 725 Molecular Systematics (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Basic concepts in systematics, systematical methods, theoretical and practical application of different molecular methods, comparison of different methods, application of methods to specific purposes, and application of different analysis programs to different molecular data.

  • BIY 726 Molecular evolution and phylogenetics (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Molecular basis of evolution and evolutionary changes in DNA sequences, synonymous and non-synonymous nucleotide changes, methods in phylogenetic studies, phylogenetic trees, molecular clock and neutral allele theory.

  • BIY 727 Insect Molecular Genetics (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Eukaryotic DNA, transcription, translation, gene and gene structure, Central Dogma, Molecular techniques, Restriction Analysis of genomic or PCR amplifications, Cloning, Library preparations, Insect Molecular genetics, sex-determination in insects, P-elements, Insect molecular systematics, and evolution, Insect Population genetics.

  • BIY 728 Numerical Taxonomy (2 2 3) 6 ECTS

Basic principles of Numeric Taxonomy, basic definitions, taxonomy, classification, taxonomic characters, genetic similarity and dis-similarity between OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), Clustering, tree construction, Computer application of some Numerical Taxonomic computer programs such as NTSYS, MSVP, SYNTAX, SAAP to biological data.

  • BIY 729 Advanced Insect Physiology I (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

The history of insect physiology, cuticle structure, chitin, sclerotin, pigmentation of cuticle, tracheae, tracheoles, diffusion of oxygen, carbonic anhydrase, blood pressure, control heartbeat, plasmatocytes, haemoglobin, fat body, feeding mechanism, fore-gut, salivary glands, digestion of cellulose, symbionts in digestion.

  • BIY 730 Advanced Insect Physiology II (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Excretion system, excretory organs, urate cells, malpighian tubules, rectal reabsorption, absorption of water, food requirements, vitamins, energy sources, anaerobic metabolsim, silk production, mum, defensive secretions, growth ratio, metamorphosis, juvenil hormone, ecdysone, regeneration, sexual dimorphism, photoperiod and diapause, testis and spermatozoa, ovary and egg cells, flight muscle, sense organs, behaviour,  endocrine glands, pheromones.

  • BIY 731 Useful Plants (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Classification of useful plants; introduction to food plants, spice plants, stimulant plants, industrial plants, medical plants and ornamental plants, introduction to Turkish medical and economical plants.

  • BIY 733 Phloem (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Phloem elements, localities of phloem in plants, formation of phloem, relationship of phloem and viral diseases, comparative structure of phloem, phylogenetic tendencies of  phloem structure.

  • BIY 734 Terminology of Bryophytes (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Introduction of Bryophyte diagnosis keys; Used general terminologies up to genus level in these keys; In the passing to species level used elaborate terms in terminology; The terminology of species descriptions in Bryology; The examine of using terminologies in Subspecies and Varieties levels; find out may be using alternative difference or similar characters in taxonomic categories under the species; Compose identification keys for bryophyte flora in the studied.

  • BIY 735 Advanced Cell Biology I (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This course will cover advanced principle of cellular biology including cell theory, physical and chemical structures of cell, specifity and structures of biomolecules, energy transformations, the flow of the genetic information and cellular compositions.

  • BIY 736 Advanced Cell Biology II (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Organisms have a common structure at cellular and subcellular levels. The students will gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that are the basis for the cellular processes such as membrane transport, membrane potential, protein sorting, cell differentiation, embryo formation and cellular immunology in this course.

  • BIY 739  Light Microscope (2 0 2) 6 ECTS

History of microscope, Principles of light microscope, Features of mechanic and optic parts of light microscope, Bright field microscope, Dark field microscope, Stereomicroscope, Phase Contrast Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy(DIC), Confocal Laser Microscopes.

  • BIY 740 Biology of Parasitic Plants (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Anatomy of parasitic plants, life cycles of parasitic plants, haustorium structures of parasitic plants, primary and secondary haustorium.

  • BIY 741 Plant Tissue Culture Techniques (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Importance of plant tissue culture, Meristem culture, Production of virus free plants, Clonal propagation, Synthetic seed, Anther and ovul culture-Regeneration of haploid plant and importance of it, Protoplast culture and applications, PlanBiyolojik bimprovement, Germplasm preservation, Plant tissue culture in biotechnology.

  • BIY 742 Biological Dyes (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

History of stainning in anatomy, Chemical features of biological dyes, Classification of biological dyes, asidic and alkaline dyes-chromophores, Relation of chemical structure and colour, Dying mechanizms of biological dyes in tissues and cells, Features and preparation of the important biological dyes, Preperation of Feulgen, Acetocarmin, Heidenhain hematoxylin, Erlich hematoxylin, Safranin, Fast green

  • BIY 743 Electron Microscope Tecniques in Biology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

The purpose is to give basic topics regarding the studies with electron microscope - an important tool in ultrastructural researches in basic science studies. Types and operating principles of electron microscopes, preparation techniques used in ultrastructural researches, sample protocoles and recent techniques.

  • BIY 745 Plant Growth Regulators  (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

The purpose is to give the basic topics regarding the studies about plant growth regulators, which are regarded as important stimulant substances in basic science studies, applied biological sciences, plant breeding as well as plant tissue culture researches. Definition and classification of plant growth regulators; biosyntheses, functions and metabolic processes of auxins, cytokinins, giberellic acids, absisic acid, etylene and organic molecules (one of the plant growth regulators as considered in recent studies) as well as characteristics of synthetic plant growth regulators.

  • BIY 746 Ischemia Reperfusion Injury (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Reperfusion injury, reperfusion arrhythmias,   pathological origin of reperfusion arrhythmias, oxygen derived free radicals, pharmacological approaches for protecition against reperfusion injury, antioxidants and free radical scavengers, calsium antogonists, inhibitors of neutrophils,   inhibitors of Na/H and Na/Ca exchanger.   

  • BIY 747 Microscopical Illustration and Photographical Techniques in Biology I (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This is a teorical course teaching microscopical illustration and measurement, photographical instruments and camera systems. 

  • BIY 748 Mıcroscopıcal Illustratıon and Photographıcal Technıques In Bıology II (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This is a teorical course teaching microscopical photographic and measurement software, trinocular resarch microscope supporting with PC.

  • BIY 749 Cardiac Physiology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

The action potentials of cardiac cells, conduction in cardiac fibers, cardiac excitability, cardiac arrhythmias, anotomical basis of cardiac function, cardiac cyclus, control of heart rate, regulation of myocardial performance.

  • BIY 750 Special Circulations (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Skin circulation, skeletal muscle circulation, coronary circulation, cerebral circulation, cerebral circulation, intestinal circulation, hepatic circulation, fetal circulation.

  • BIY 751 Vascular Systems (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

The action potentials of cardiac cells, conduction in cardiac fibers, cardiac excitability, cardiac arrhythmias, anotomical basis of cardiac function, cardiac cyclus, control of heart rate, regulation of myocardial performance.

  • BIY 753 Electrocardiogram Recording Techniques and Evaluation (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Introduction. Derivation. Interval measurement. Determination of heart rate and electrical axis of heart. Arrhytmias. Bradycardia. Tachycardia. Ventricular extra beat. Ventricular arrhytmias. The diagnosis of cardiac arrhytmias. The effect of heart disorder on the ECG.

  • BIY 754 Molecular Ecology (2 0 2) 6 ECTS

Molecular ecology is a field of evolutionary biology that is concerned with applying molecular population genetics, molecular phylogenetics, and more recently genomics to traditional ecological questions (e.g., species diagnosis, conservation and assessment of biodiversity, species-area relationships, and many questions in behavioral ecology)

  • BIY 755 Software Application for Scientific Usage (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Participants will get familiar with some software which they need during their both education and proffessional life.

  • BIY 763 Paleolimnology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS  

Water and Aquatic Ecosystems, Long term environmental change, Lake sediments and long term environmental change, Collecting Sedimentary Archive, Dating Methods, Physical and geochemical proxies, Biological proxies, Development of transfer function, Acidification, Persistent organic pollutants, Eutrophication, Climate change, Student-led presentations.

  • BIY 797 M.Sc. Seminar (0 2 0) 3 ECTS

The Course offers the M.Sc. students to prepare a text with a proper format by investigating literatures and to give an oral presentation to their departmental academic staff. The oral presentations enable the students to gain ability in interactively transfering knowledge and disscusion. 

  • BIY 798 M.Sc. Field of Specialization (2 0 0) 15 ECTS

This is a theorical course offerred in semestre, semestre break and summer terms followed by appointment of the advisor for M.Sc. students. It provides M.Sc. students to obtain scientific ethic and discipline.

  • BIY 799 M.Sc. Thesis Research (0 1 0) 15 ECTS

This is a practical course offerred in year, semestre, semestre break and summer terms followed by appointment of the advisor for M.Sc. students.

Content of Courses for Biology PhD Program


  • BIY 801 Preparation and Evaluation Tecniques of Mammalian Karyotype (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Structure and shape of chromosomes; mitosis and meiosis; determination of submetacentric, subtelocentric and acrocentric chromosomes; mechanisims than change the number and shape of chromosomes; chmicals used in karyotype procedure and preparations of these chemicals; preparation of the animal for karyotype; karyotype procedure; chromosome banding; taking photos through microcope; evaluation of photos and preparation of karyotype; evaluaiton of the resuls.

  • BIY 802 Basic Prınciples in Biologıcal Research and Publicatıons (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Biological research and publications; determinations of biological research interets; manuscript, oral and poster presentations; preparation of evaluartion and conference reports; ethic, right and permissions regarding to publications.

  • BIY 803 Cell Physiology I (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Prokaryotic cell, Eucaryotic cell, Viruses, Cell structure and function, Cell membranes, Membrane proteins, synaptic transmisson, diffusion, osmosis, active transport, endocytosis, signal transduction pathways, Ion channels.

  • BIY 804 Animal Behaviour (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Development of behaviour; Behaviour genetic; Communication; Motivation and desicion; Learning and memory; Evolution; Social organisation.

  • BIY 805 Advanced Biochemistry I (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Biochemical reactions, Building blocks of the cell, Protein structures, Protein purification, Carbohydrates, Carbohydrate modification, Peptidoglycans, Fatty acids, Membrane lipids, Enzymes, Allosteric regulation, Vitamins, Metabolics pathways, Glycolysis, Tricarboxylic acid cycle, Oxidative Phosphorilation, Photosynthesis, Fatty acid oxidation.

  • BIY 806 Cell Physiology II (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Metabolic pathways of cell, Cell interaction, Cellular molecules, Genetic information, structure of organelles, Physiology of organelles, Ionic equilibria, Cell aging, Apoptosis, Necrosis, Antioxidant defence system. Pathophysiology of cell

  • BIY 807 Multivariate Statistical Analysis  (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Multivariate statistical analysis course for graduate students in biology gives an understanding of advanced topics in statistics and various multvariate techniques (canonical correlation, factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant funtion analysis, principle component analysis). Students will complete a series of data based projects that allow them to demonstrate their skills in analysis, reporting, and interpretation of findings.

  •  BIY 808 Advanced Biochemistry II (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Synthesis of biomolecules, Amino acids, Oxidative deamination, Pyrimidine ribonucleotids, Deoxyribonucleotids, Cell wall biosynthesis, Phospholipids, Eicosanoids, Steroid hormones, Action of hormones, Nucleic acid structures, Nucleoproteins, Structural properties of DNA, DNA replication, RNA synthesis and processing, Protein targeting, Regulation of gene, Immunoglobulins,  carcinogenesis

  • BIY 809 Cytotaxonomy of Bryophytes (2 2 3) 6 ECTS

The Introduction of Cytology of the Hepaticae and Anthocerotae, the foundations of Liverworts cytology, chromosome numbers, chromosome structure, chromosome behaviour, cyto-taxonomy, cyto-genetics, future developments, the Introduction of Cytology of Mosses, meiosis and mitosis in mosses, range of chromosome numbers, basic chromosome numbers, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome morphology and specialised chromosomes, the karyotype in mosses, cytology and bryogeography, cytogenetics of mosses, cytotaxonomy and phylogeny, techniques for chromosome study in mosses.

  • BIY 811 Photosynthesis (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

The light reactions of photosynthesis, carbon fixation reactions, physiological and ecological importance of photosyntesis.

  • BIY 812 Lichens, Bryophytes and Air Quality (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

The biology and ecological importance of lichens and bryophytes; Lichen floristics and air quality; Mapping air quality with lichens; Phytosociological approaches to air pollution monitoring with lichens; Quantitative approaches to air quality studies;  Responses of bryophytes to air pollution; Physiological responses of lichens to air pollutant fumigations; Correlating fumigation studies with field effects; Comparisons of SO2 absorption capacities of mosses; Lichens and vascular plants in diverse habitats; Bryophytes and lichens as monitors of metal deposition.

  • BIY 813 Pollen Biotechnology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Molecular biology of male gametophyt development in plants, transcription of genes peculiar to anther and pollen in plants, invitro pollen cultures, molecular structure of pollen allergen proteins. 

  • BIY 814 Research Methods of Vegetation Ecology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Description, origin and development of vegetation, vegetation types (plant formations), properties of plant association, descriptive methods of vegetation.

  • BIY 815 General Toxicology (2 0 2) 6 ECTS

Toxic effecrs of drugs and chemicals, basic principles of toxicology, teratogenicity, experimental calibration of drug in toxication, therapeutic index, basic principles of acut and chronic toxicities Pesticide (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and fumiganrs) toxications and therapies

  • BIY 816 Biological Polymers (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Introduction to polymers, Biodegradable polymers, Polyesters, biological polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates, Natural polyesters, synthetic polyesters

  • BIY 817 Reasearch Methods in Health Sciences  (2 2 3) 6 ECTS

Scientific method, data, measurement procedures and scales, causative relations, research planning, research stages and types, use of research methods in epidemiology, sampling, questionnaire method, experiment planning, observation method, clinic experiments, blind, research errors, research ethics, preparation of data for analysis, report writing method.

  • BIY 818 Basic Pharmacology Of Autacoids (2 0 2) 6 ECTS

Clasification and structur of otacoids, histamine, and antihistaminics, serotonine and its agonisrs and antagonists, polipeptide autacoids, eicosanoids, and others.

  • BIY 819 Mammalian Reproductive Systems (2 2 3) 6 ECTS

General aspects of female reproductive system; histology of ovarium; histology of tubauterina; histology of uterus; histology of vagina; General aspects of male reproductive system; histology of testes; histology of epididimis; histology of additionally glands.

  • BIY 820 Methods in Genetics (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Aim to learn the basic working principles of genetics methods such as PCR, SSCP, PTT, sequencing and primer design.

  • BIY 821 Introduction to Genetics (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Aim to learn the basic principles of genetics such as genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, principle of heritage, genetic material, genotype, fenotype and inheritance

  • BIY 822 Mammalian Embriology (2 0 2) 6 ECTS

Mammalian spermatogenesis; oogenesis; fetrilisation; implantation; placentation

  • BIY 823 Environmental Pollution For Biologist (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

The aim of this course is a brief study on the analytical techniques and the methods of determination of chemical pollutants in aqueous, solid, and air samples at trace concentrations. After general definition, the course will begin with the Analytical Techniques of pollutants. Such techniques are Titrimetric Analysis, Colorimetric Analysis, Analysis of Metals by Atomic Absorption, and Analysis of Organic Pollutants by Gas Chromatography etc. It will continue with the analysis of Specific Classes of Substances and Aggregate Properties and Selected Individual Compounds in aqueous, solid and air environment. The polluters concentration will be evaluated according to EPA, WHO and Turkish Environmental Regulation. Finally, laboratory studies will be carried out in environmental pollution.

  • BIY 824 Determination Methods Of Mammalian Reproductive Cycle (2 2 3) 6 ECTS

Reproductive cycle in laboratory animals; cycle examples in vild rodents; vaginal plac; vaginal smear; smear dying.

  • BIY 825 Introduction To Comparative Mammalian Anatomy (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Introduction to comparative anatomy, comparative anatomy of skeletal, muscular, respiratory, circulatory, digestive, urogenital and nervous systems

  • BIY 826 Fertilization of Angiosperms I (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Structure of angiosperm’s flower, Microsporangia, Male gametophyte, Megasporangium, Female gametophyte, Pollination, Fertilization-Pollen germination, Pathway of pollen tube, Pollen tube penetrate in ovule, Pollen tube penetrate in embryo sac,  Double fertilization, Anormalities, Sexual incompatibility, Zygote, Polyembryony, Apomiksis.

  • BIY 827 Morphometric Analysis Methods (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Introduction to morphpmetry, morphpmetric data, traditional methods, assessment methods, geometrc morphpmetry applicaitons

  • BIY 828 Plant Secondary Metabolites I (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

The analysis and identification of seconder metabolites in plants by using cell and tissue culture techniques -which is among the basic topics of biotechnology studies- and production of seconder metabolites in plants by cell suspension cultures, gene transfer to plants and bioreactors.

  • BIY 829 Molecular Systematics of Bryophytes (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Bryophytes and the evaluation of land plants, Hornwort, Liverwort and Moss phylogenies, relations between phylogeny and biogeography of Bryophytes, The bryophyte species surviving on the edge: origins, genetic diversity and mutations.

  • BIY 830 Free Radicals and Antioxidant Systems II (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This course is designed to give students an understanding of the fundamental aspects of xenobiotics and biotransformation mechanisms, antioxidan defence systems, free radical metabolisms and their roles in physiological and pathophysiological status.

  • BIY 831 Bryophyte Ecology (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Definition of bryophyte and the general bryophyte life cycle; Distinguishing Anthocerotophyta, Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta (Takakiopsida, Sphagnopsida, Andreaeopsida, Andreaeobryopsida, Polytrichopsida, Bryopsida) and compare with their morphological, anatomical and ecological features; When they lives in dissimilar habitats their ecological relations with other living creatures.

  • BIY 833 The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This Code aims at the provision of a stable method of naming taxonomic groups, avoiding and rejecting the use of names that may cause error or ambiguity or throw science into confusion. The Principles form the basis of the system of botanical nomenclature will be given with explanatory examples. In addition, supplements; the list of names of hybrids, conserve and decline are added.

  • BIY 835 Molecular Systematics of Bryophytes (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Bryophytes and the evaluation of land plants, Hornwort, Liverwort and Moss phylogenies, relations between phylogeny and biogeography of Bryophytes, The bryophyte species surviving on the edge: origins, genetic diversity and mutations.

  • BIY 837 Comparative Digestive Physiology I (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This course comparatively examines the digestive system, organells and organs involved in this system from one-celled to multicellular living things, and from invertabrates to vertebrates including man

  • BIY 838 Comparative Digestive Physiology II (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This course comparatively examines the digestive system, organells and organs involved in this system from one-celled to multicellular living things, and from invertabrates to vertebrates including man

  • BIY 839 Advanced Molecular Biology I (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This course examines high level organization in animals and human, and structural and metabolic process in specialized cells at molecular level. This course also gives advanced informations about specialized molecular process in all cell types and key molecules in these process, and structure-function relation in the biological molecules.       

  • BIY 840 Advanced Molecular Biology II (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This course examines specialized physiological process at molecular level in animal and human. This course also gives advanced informations and developments in basic cellular metabolisms

  • BIY 841 Ecotoxicology I (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This course comparatively includes particularly the potential effects of human activities on natural ecosystem. This course also examines environmental pollutants, their structure and characteristics, effects on different organization levels, analysis methods of toxin, exposure ways, natural biodegradation time, histopathological effects and collection of environmental samples. 

  • BIY 842 Ecotoxicology II (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

This course examines possible structural and functional deteriorations in systems of human and animals as result of endogenous and exogenous factors. This course also examines determination the abnormality with pathological and histological methods.

  • BIY 846 Diatoms (3 0 3) 6 ECTS

Introduction to Diatoms, The Biology of Diatoms, Distribution and ecology of diatoms, Taphonomy, Diatoms and past environmental change, Diatoms and past water level fluctuations, Diatoms and tracking past eutrophication, Diatoms and tracking the past salinity change, Diatoms and tracking the past sea level change, Diatoms and Archeology, Diatoms and nanotechnology, Student-led presentations about specific papers.

  • BIY 897  Ph.D. Seminar (0 2 0) 3 ECTS

The Course offers the M.Sc. students to prepare a text with a proper format by investigating literatures and to give an oral presentation to their departmental academic staff. The oral presentations enable the students to gain ability in interactively transfering knowledge and disscusion

  •  BIY 898 Ph.D. Field of Specialization (2 0 0) 15 ECTS

This is a theorical course offerred in year, semestre, semestre break and summer terms followed by appointment of the advisor for  Ph.D. students. It provides Ph.D. students to obtain scientific ethic and discipline.

  •  BIY 899 Ph.D. Thesis Research (0 1 0) 15 ECTS

This is a practical course offerred in year, semestre, semestre break and summer terms followed by appointment of the advisor for Ph.D. students.

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